How does a quantum computer work? – Digital Twin


The experimental physicist Rainer Blatt explains how a quantum computer works, when it is ready for use and why intelligence agencies are very interested in this technology. We know that quantum computers work. Only when they develop their performance and become stronger than conventional computers, we do not know exactly. George Dyson says that with quantum computers, cryptography could be the last line between the freedom of the individual and the omniscient state. The NSA is doing intensive research. A conversation with Rainer Blatt, a physicist in Innsbruck and a luminary in European research, the state of affairs in the development of quantum computers and the question of what public science can oppose to intelligence services. © IQOQI / LacknerThe view into the heart of a quantum computer in Innsbruck. He is already working and can be controlled by employees via smartphone from the lunch menu. Mr. Blatt, how much of your research has to do with computers? We have two quantum computers in Innsbruck. You imagine a laptop or desktop computer under a computer today, that’s what a quantum computer basically looks like. He’s a little taller, misshapen, and he’s still in the lab. So streamlined that you could easily sell it, it is not yet. But he is not there yet to solve universal problems now. He is good for special, very specific problems. How do you look in them? In 2005, you worked with the first quantum byte, meanwhile, there is talk of quantum processors. If you also say that the quantum computer is not yet a universal computer; we do not have to fundamentally change our picture of the computer? You misunderstood me. The quantum computer is a universal computer. But you do not have to shoot cannons on sparrows. We do not need the quantum computer for Office applications. It’s more like this: In the eighties, there were the first microprocessors and it came up with the idea to obstruct another special processor, a co-processor, which took over the numerics. By now, every computer is built that way. The original processor could have done all the work on its own, but some computing tasks can be outsourced to more suitable processors. And a quantum computer is again such a system that can better calculate very specific things, but is not necessarily necessary for others. © IQOQID Experimental physicist Rainer Blatt, born in 1952, has been Director of the Institute of Quantum Optics and Quantum Information at the University of Innsbruck since 2003. In 2005, the institute succeeded in working with the first quantum byte; Currently, the researchers have two quantum computers in operation. Blatt, who also headed the Institute for Experimental Physics in Innsbruck until 2013, is a member of the Austrian Academy of Sciences and the Austrian Science Council. As light as a chip, a quantum computer can not be obstructed. Does he still resemble a box for which you need many more technology? It is an optical table with a lot of equipment, but you could build it on a small desk. You need a few lasers and a classic computer to operate. But if they use it in five to ten years, if the computing power has grown accordingly, they will probably work with him remotely. They will send their programs to him and then they will get the result again. This is how it used to be with mainframes. A quantum computer at home is real future music. They describe a future of the cloud. That’s what the concept is called today. It used to be no different. There were central computer, there one has brought his punch cards and later get the result as an expression. Today, we also use our quantum computers remotely. My young employees steer him out of the canteen by mobile phone. That sounds simple. Usually, I surrender to the term quantum. That’s the wrong attitude. You too can understand the quantum computer. If you ask me about him, I’ll explain it to you. Well. A quantum bit assumes several states at the same time. But now a computer needs unique bits to calculate reliably. It’s easy. A classic bit is a switch that indicates either (zero) or on (one). In the classical computer, these bits are in a row and make up a register. If the computer calculates, it does not do anything else but flip those bits from zeros to ones or vice versa. He does this extremely fast and frequently in a row. Since he does it according to given rules, at the end of the register is a number which is the result of the calculation. It works the same way with a quantum computer. Take a hydrogen atom …

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