understand everything from scratch


The quantum computer: understanding everything from zeroWe hear more and more about the quantum computer in the media, but not really understand what it is. Do not worry, it’s not your fault: quantum computing is a bit complex at first glance. But thanks to this article, you will discover: Why we really need quantum computers … and why they are a little scary anyway.How do quantum algorithms work, The basics in physics to understand how they work, And the answers of big questions like: are we all going to have our quantum computer in the living room? Before you start, you must be sure to understand the basic operation of a normal computer. What did a computer do? Quantum? Even if we have the impression that a computer does a lot of things, in reality, it has only one mission: it deals with information (hence the word “computer”). stores information on your hard drive, processes info with its processor (like the page you’re reading or a movie you’re watching), and turns that information into sound (in your speakers) or image (on your screen) Endpoint. This information manipulated by the computer has the characteristic of being coded in binary, that is to say with 0’s and 1’s. In other words, a computer reflects in binary. A computer memory is thus made up of billions of boxes containing either a 0 or a 1. Such a box is called a bit. To manipulate these bits, your computer is filled with small electronic components that work together and that are called “logic gates.” The code of any program, encoded in binary, to be usable by a computer Your computer can not solve all your problems! We also have the impression that computers can solve all the problems of the world because they are powerful and effective. And that’s wrong, researchers often encounter problems that their computers can not solve. So, they are looking for ways to make their computers more powerful. To make a computer more powerful, you must: increase its memory (to store more information). Increase the number of transistors it has (to process more information). Unfortunately, there comes a time when adding memory and the processor is not even enough to make the computer satisfactory. But even the best supercomputers (computer geeks, used by researchers) can be overworked by some problems that are decidedly too complicated – like the traveling salesman. These classic computers are not made to solve these complex problems. They just do not “think” in the right way. A supercomputer at IBM. It works much like your own computer – with processors and memory – except that it includes tens of thousands of processors (while yours usually only has 2, 3 or 4). “No matter how powerful they are, they are overwhelmed by certain problems. Hence the idea of ​​a quantum computer that would work quite differently. The first theories of quantum computing were born in the 80s, and use amazing properties of quantum physics.2 phenomena at the heart of the quantum computerTo understand the operation of a quantum computer, no mystery: you must already understand the basics of quantum physics. Let’s see 2 essential notions, as simply as possible.1. Quantum superposition At the beginning of the 20th century, physicists realized that matter behaved strangely in the infinitely small. For example, a particle of the infinitely small can be in an indeterminate state before any measurement. An analogy can be drawn with a lottery ticket: a lottery ticket is either a winner or a loser. Once we look at the result of the draw on TV, we have the answer. But before the draw, this ticket was neither a winner nor a loser. It simply had a certain probability of being a winner and a certain probability of being a loser. In the quantum world, all the characteristics of the particles may be subject to this indeterminacy: for example, the position of a quantum particle is uncertain: it is not at point A or point B, but only has a probability of being here or there during a measurement. Before the measurement, the particle is neither at point A nor at point B. On the other hand, after the measurement, the state of the particle is well defined: it is at point A or at point B. This indetermination is a idea…

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