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AMD Is Born

AMD Is Born

From its conception in 1969, AMD focused on producing microprocessors and similar computer components. Initially, it merely licensed processor designs from other companies like Fairchild Semiconductor. Although it started producing other PC components developed entirely in-house early on as well, AMD wouldn’t produce a processor it designed itself for several years.

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AM9080 And AM2900

AM9080 And AM2900

In 1975, AMD created its first two non-licensed processor products. Technically, its AM2900 wasn’t a processor; rather, it was a series of components used to build a 4-bit modular processor. It also produced the AM9080, which was a reverse-engineered clone of Intel’s 8080 8-bit microprocessor.

The IBM Agreement

The IBM Agreement

AMD’s entry into the x86 processor market began in the early 1980s following an agreement between IBM and Intel. At the time, IBM was one of the largest computer manufacturers in the world and quite possibly the single largest producer of computer products. IBM was deliberating on several different processor designs to use in its upcoming products when it entered into negotiations with Intel. If Intel won the contract, it would secure a massive order for the company’s processors for use inside of IBM-compatible PCs.

IBM was concerned, however, that the sheer number of processors that it needed would exceed the production capabilities of any single manufacturer, so it required Intel to license its technology to third-party manufacturers to ensure sufficient total volume. Intel, not wanting to lose the contract with IBM to a competitor, agreed to IBM’s terms in 1981.

Following the agreement, AMD began producing licensed identical clones of Intel’s 8086 processors in 1982.

Code Name N/A
Release Date 1982
Architecture 16-bit
Data Bus 16-bit
Address Bus 20-bit
Maximum Memory Support 1 MB
L1 Cache None
L2 Cache None
Frequency 4 – 10 MHz
FSB 4 – 10 MHz
FPU 8087 (Sold Separate)
SIMD None
Fab 3000 nm
Transistor Count 29,000
Power Consumption N/A
Voltage 5 V
Die Area 33 mm²
Socket 40 pins

AM29000 32-Bit RISC Processors

AM29000 32-Bit RISC Processors

Throughout the 1980s and into the 1990s, AMD also produced a line of 32-bit RISC processors known as the AM29000 series. These processors were essentially the next generation of its earlier AM2900 products, however, and they were targeted more at the embedded market than high-performance computers. AMD designed the AM29000 using a variation of the Berkeley RISC architecture. Eventually, AMD discontinued work on the AM29000 series to focus on its x86 processor line.

AMD AM286

AMD AM286

AMD’s second x86 processor was the AM286, a licensed clone of Intel’s 80286. Although the chip was architecturally identical, it had one advantage over its Intel counterpart: higher clock speeds. Where Intel capped the 80286 at 12.5 MHz, AMD pushed the AM286 as high as 20 MHz.

AMD AM286

Code Name N/A
Release Date 1983
Architecture 16-bit
Data Bus 16-bit
Address Bus 24-bit
Maximum Memory Support 16 MB
L1 Cache None
L2 Cache None
Frequency 8 – 20 MHz
FSB 8 – 20 MHz
FPU 80287 (sold separately)
SIMD None
Fab 1500 nm
Transistor Count 134,000
Power Consumption N/A
Voltage 5 V
Die Area 49 mm²
Socket 68 pins

AMD AM386: Legal Battles With Intel

http://www.tomshardware.com/

In 1985, Intel released its first 32-bit x86 processor design, the 80386. AMD planned to release its variation, the AM386, not long after, but Intel held it up in court. Intel claimed that its cross-licensing agreement permitted AMD to produce copies of only the 80286 and older processor designs, but AMD argued that the contract permitted it to create clones of the 80386 and future x86 derivatives, as well. After years of legal battles, the courts sided with AMD, and the company was able to release its AM386 in 1991.

Although the AM386 is an 80386 clone, AMD released AM386 processors with clock speeds up to 40 MHz, whereas Intel’s 80386 tapped out at 33 MHz. This gave AMD a performance advantage, and as it used the same socket and platform as the 80386, it gave customers an upgrade path to their aging systems.

AMD AM386

Code Name N/A
Date 1991
Architecture 32-bit
Data Bus 32-bit
Address Bus 32-bit
Maximum Memory Support 4 GB
L1 Cache None
L2 Cache None
Frequency 12 – 40 MHz
FSB 12 – 40 MHz
FPU 80387
SIMD None
Fab 1500 – 1000 nm
Transistor Count 275,000
Power Consumption 2 W (@33 MHz)
Voltage 5 V
Die Area 42 mm²
Socket 132 pins

AM486 And AMD 5×86: The Final Clone

http://www.tomshardware.com/

The last processor designed by Intel that AMD produced was the AM486 (80486), and it was released in 1994. Due to ongoing legal disputes between Intel and AMD, some versions of the AM486 use Intel microcode whereas others use microcode developed in-house by AMD. AMD followed a similar strategy with its AM486 as it did with the AM386, by pushing clock speed considerably higher than Intel. Although Intel’s fastest 80486 processors were capped at 100 MHz, AMD went as high as 120 MHz on the AM486.

Not long after, in 1995, AMD also released its AMD 5×86. This processor used the same architecture as the AM486 and 80486, but it pushed the clock speed even higher. Retail models ran at 133 MHz, and OEMs had access to an even faster 150 MHz version.

Other notable changes in this line of processors was the addition of L1 cache, which helped to increase performance compared to the older 80386/AM386 CPUs. It also moved the FPU into the same package as the CPU, which also significantly improved performance. Prior to this, all FPUs were sold as separate hardware units and connected to the CPU through the motherboard.

Following the release of Intel’s first Pentium processor around the same time also lead AMD and other competing CPU designers to introduce the PR or “Pentium Rating” system. This gave companies a simple way to advertise their products against each other and against Intel’s Pentium. An example of this is the AMD 5×86 PR 75, which was advertised as having equivalent performance to a 75 MHz Pentium CPU.

AM486 And AMD 5×86

Code Name N/A X5
Date 1993 1995
Architecture 32-bit 32-bit
Data Bus 32-bit 32-bit
Address Bus 32-bit 32-bit
Maximum Memory Support 4 GB 4 GB
L1 Cache 8 – 16 KB 16 KB
L2 Cache None None
Clock Speed 16 – 120 MHz 133 -150 MHz
FSB 16 – 50 MHz 33 – 50 MHz
FPU Integrated Integrated
SIMD None None
Fab 800 – 1000 nm 350 nm
Transistor Count 1,185,000 N/A
Power Consumption N/A N/A
Voltage 5 V – 3.3 V 3.45 V
Die Area 67 – 81 mm² N/A
Socket 168 pins 168 pins

K5: AMD’s First x86 Processor

http://www.tomshardware.com/

In 1996, AMD released its first x86 processor designed entirely in-house. The fifth-generation x86 K5 processor used an innovative design that combined the execution hardware from AMD’s discontinued AM29000 RISC processors with an x86 front end. Because the execution back-end hardware was based on a RISC design, instructions were decoded into micro-instructions that could be fed into one of five integer execution units or an integrated FPU.

AMD implemented an out-of-order speculative execution design as well, which helped to boost performance. The overall design was fairly complex, however, which limited AMD’s ability to push up the clock speed, and the K5 was not able to surpass Intel’s Pentium in terms of performance. It was considered relatively efficient, however, and AMD advertised 100 MHz K5 processors with a PR133 rating, meaning that AMD considered it to have equivalent performance to a 133 MHz Pentium.

AMD K5

Code Name SSA/5, 5k86
Date 1996
Architecture 32-bit
Data Bus 32-bit
Address Bus 32-bit
Maximum Memory Support 4 GB
L1 Cache 16 KB + 8 KB
L2 Cache None
Clock Speed 75 – 133 MHz (PR75 – PR200)
FSB 50 – 66 MHz
SIMD None
Fab 500 – 350 nm
Transistor Count 4.3 Million
Power Consumption 11 – 16 W
Voltage 3.52 V
Die Area 181 – 251 mm²
Connection Socket 5 & Socket 7

K6: AMD’s NexGen Processor

http://www.tomshardware.com/

Instead of developing a new architecture to succeed the K5, AMD opted to purchase NexGen, a competing manufacturer of processors, and use its upcoming Nx686 design for the K6. Although the design was completely different than the K5, it was somewhat similar at a high level.

For example, like the K5, the K6 also used an x86 front-end to decode instructions into micro-operations that were then executed on internally RISC-like hardware. The K6 was released in 1997, and it was compatible with Socket 7 motherboards; clock-for-clock, it matched the performance of Intel’s Pentium II, while also being considerably less expensive. It also included the important MMX SIMD instruction set.

The Pentium II did have one major advantage in that its FPU performance was better than the K6.

AMD K6

Code Name K6 (350 nm), Little Foot (250 nm)
Date 1997/1998
Architecture 32-bit
Data Bus 32-bit
Address Bus 32-bit
Maximum Memory Support 4 GB
L1 Cache 32 KB + 32 KB
L2 Cache None
L3 Cache None
Clock Speed 266 – 350 MHz
FSB 50 – 66 MHz
SIMD MMX
Fab 350 – 250 nm
Transistor Count 8.8 Million
Power Consumption 12 – 28 W
Voltage 2,2 – 3,2 V
Die Area 68 – 157 mm²
Socket Socket 7

AMD K6-II

AMD K6-II

AMD’s next processor was the K6-II. It was essentially an extended version of the K6 that could use a faster 100 MHz FSB, higher clock speeds, and new SIMD instructions. AMD introduced its 3DNow! SIMD instruction set as a competitor to Intel’s MMX. Similar to AMD’s older processors, the K6-II gave customers a clear upgrade path from the aging Pentium MMX processors, and as a result they were highly successful.

AMD K6-II

Code Name K6-3D, Chomper
Date 1998
Architecture 32-bit
Data Bus 32-bit
Address Bus 32-bit
Maximum Memory Support 4 GB
L1 Cache 32 KB + 32 KB
L2 Cache None
L3 Cache None
Clock Speed 300 – 550 MHz
FSB 66 – 100 MHz
SIMD MMX, 3DNow!
Fab 250 nm
Transistor Count 9.3 Million
Power Consumption 13 – 25 W
Voltage 2.2 – 2.4 V
Die Area 81 mm²
Socket Socket 7/Super Socket 7

AMD K6-III: Integration Of L2 Cache

http://www.tomshardware.com/

In 1999, AMD released its third-generation K6 processor, the K6-III. It was architecturally similar to the K6 and K6-II, but AMD added 256 KB of L2 cache on the CPU die. Prior to this, L2 was placed on the motherboard and accessed over the FSB, but the tighter integration significantly reduced latency and increased bandwidth. The K6-III was relatively expensive, however, and AMD quickly replaced it with the Athlon processor.

AMD K6-III

Code Name Sharptooth
Date 1999
Architecture 32-bit
Data Bus 32-bit
Address Bus 32-bit
Maximum Memory Support 4 GB
L1 Cache 32 KB + 32 KB
L2 Cache 256 KB (350 – 550 MHz)
L3 Cache None
Clock Speed 350 – 550 MHz
FSB 100 MHz
SIMD MMX, 3DNow!
Fab 250 nm
Transistor Count 21.3 Million
Power Consumption 10 – 17 W
Voltage 2.2 – 2.4 V
Die Area 118 mm²
Socket Super Socket 7

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