List of CPUs

Intel and AMD CPU The history of the PC is linked to the history of Intel, which with its line of low-cost processors has allowed the development and widespread use of PCs. Other manufacturers, such as Motorola, have put quality CPUs on the market, but they have not had the same spread and importance as Intel. AMD and, for a while, Cyrix, have created clones of Intel CPUs, almost completely compatible. AMD, with Atlon, at some point produced better processors than Intel’s, and with the Athlon 64 it was the protagonist of the evolution of PCs to 64 bits. Currently Intel and AMD share the PC CPU market, there are also other suppliers, but less successful. The architecture of these CPUs is called X86, these processors have a set of CISC instructions, with words in little endian order. The first versions of these CPUs had 16 16-bit registers: 4 general registers used for calculations and various special registers, which are used to manage pointers to memory, IRQs, exceptions, etc .; with the 386 processors the registers were brought to 32 bits, registers and instructions were then introduced for the float calculation. Later versions saw additions dedicated to graphics, such as MMX instructions, which use float registers for SIMD instructions, SSE instructions, which use 8 new 128-bit registers for float calculation. The limitations of 32-bit architecture have prompted Intel to break with compatibility with old applications and introduce the IA-64 architecture, completely 64 bits. With a new instruction set, no longer CISC but VLIW, better conceived. However, the CPUs of the Itanium line, which implemented this architecture, had no luck, and the 64-bit switch is taking place in 2004-2005 with the AMD64 architecture, introduced by AMD, which is an extension of the ‘X86 and uses 64-bit registers, but maintains compatibility with the old 32-bit software. As for computers, CPUs are also referred to as CPU families, or “generations”, to indicate the various types of processors that have come and gone on the market. First generation Intel CPU Year Model Clock num. gates Manufacture data bus bits address bus bits socket comments 1970 4004 0.108 Mhz 2250 10u PMOS4 12 DIP 16 pins address 540KB, 16 general bits 4 1971 4040 DIP 24 pins supports interrupts 1972 8008 3300 8 14 DIP 18 pins address 16 KB 1974 8080 2-3 MHz 5000 8 16 CERDIP 40 pin introduces the stack, addresses 64KB 1978 8086 4-10 29000 2u CMOS 16 20 addresses 1 MB, 4 general 16-bit registers, 4 segment registers 1979 8088 5-12 820 used on the first PCs IBM With the Intel 8086 and 8088 the history of the PC begins, with the 8086 is defined the architecture of the CPUs of the PCs, the 8088 is used on the first IBM and IBM-compatible PCs. Figure i4004, i8086, i8088 processors. Second generation Intel CPU (286) Year Model Clock num. gates Manufacture data bus bits address bus bits socket comments 1982 80286 6-20 MHz 134000 1.5u CMOS 16 24 68 pins, CERDIP memory protection, pre-fetch queue The 286 has double performance of 8088, allows to use 16 Mbytes of RAM , and is suitable for multi-user systems and multi-tasking programs. Implement a first memory protection system (protected mode). In the figure a 286. Third-generation Intel CPU (386) Year Model Clock num. gates Manufacture data bus bits address bus bits socket comments 198580386 DX 16-33 MHz 0.8u CMOS 275000 32 32 132 pins, PGA First 32 bits CPU, addresses 4 GB, works with math coprocessor 80376 1988 80386 SX 16 24 100 pins, QFP low cost version, addresses only 16 MB 1990 8086 SL 196 pin, low consumption QFP version With the Intel I386 we have the first completely 32-bit CPU, with 32-bit registers and capable of addressing up to 4 GB of RAM . Floating point (float) operations are implemented in hardware and are delegated to a separate integrated: the math coprocessor. These CPU clones were produced by AMD and Cyrix. The performance of these CPUs is close to 10 mips (million instruction per second). 4th generation Intel CPU (486) Year Model Clock num. gates Manufacturing data bus bits address bus bits …


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